Introduction to cutting force
Both the front and the back of the tool are subjected to normal force and friction force during cutting. These forces constitute a resultant force F. When the outer circle is turned, the joint force F is generally decomposed into three mutually perpendicular component forces (cutting force and component force). : tangential force F - it is perpendicular to the tool base in the direction of cutting speed, often called the main cutting force; radial force F - in the plane parallel to the base surface, perpendicular to the feed direction, also known as thrust; The axial force F—parallel to the feed direction in the plane parallel to the base surface, is also called the feed force. In general, F is the largest, F and F are small, and the ratio of F, F to F varies over a wide range due to the different grinding quality and wear conditions of the tool and the change of cutting conditions.
The actual cutting force during the cutting process can be measured with a force gauge. There are many types of force gauges, and the most common ones are resistance wire and piezoelectric crystal force gauges. After the dynamometer is calibrated, the magnitude of each component during the cutting process can be measured.