Measures to increase the charge factor
1. Reduce the resistance loss of the intake system and increase the pressure at the end of the intake air in the cylinder.
2. Reduce the resistance loss of the exhaust system to reduce the residual exhaust gas coefficient in the cylinder.
3. Reduce the heating of the fresh charge in the intake system by the high temperature parts to reduce the charge temperature at the end of the intake.
4. Reasonable timing of valve timing and valve lift.