The role of cyclotrons
(1) Effect of magnetic field
When a charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field vertically at a certain speed, it only performs a uniform circular motion under the action of Lorentz force, where the period is independent of the rate and radius, so that each time the charged particle moves into the D-shaped box, it will move for the same time After half a period), it accelerates into the electric field parallel to the direction of the electric field.
(2) The role of the electric field
There is a uniformly changing electric field in the narrow gap region between the two D-boxes of the cyclotron that is perpendicular to the diameter of the two D-boxes. Acceleration is done in this region.
(3) Alternating voltage
In order to ensure that the charged particles are accelerated each time they pass through the slit, so that their energy is continuously increased, an alternating voltage consistent with the period of the particle motion is added to the slit.